Medicines

Medication schedule for broilers and layers

The medicines commonly used in poultry are of two major types namely:
Topics and growth promoters
Drugs to counteract infection (antimicrobials)

The tonics include vitamins, minerals, amino acids, protein hydrolysate liver correctives, appetizers, enzymes, immunostimulants, anti-stress factors, herbal preparations liver extracts, fermentation products unidentified growth promoters, probiotics, flavouring agents, pigments, probiotics, anabolic agents and similar products or their combinations,  These are administered to the birds with the major objectives of improving the growth rate, feed efficiency, livability and to prevent disease out  breaks.    

The drugs are usually scheduled preparations like antibiotics anti microbials, furazolidone compounds, sulphate drugs, trimethoprim, dewormers, coccidiostats, anti-serum (anti- fungal, toxin binders or their combinations.  These are given either as preventive or curative measure against bacterial, protozoan, fungal and parasitic infections and infestations.

The medicines to poultry are administered either through feed or drinking water, preferably the later route.  Occasionally the medicines are administered by parental route, i.e. injection i/m, s/c or intra-peritonially.

Tonics are usually given continuously through feed at low dose or through drinking water, once daily or as suggested by the manufacturers or veterinarian.  These are invariably given for a period of not less than a week.

Most of the non-nutrient growth promoters and anti-microbial should be withdrawn from feed or water 5 to 7 days prior to slaughter, so, that there will not be any drug residues in the broiler meat-especially in liver, which may harmful to the human beings, if consumed continuously or in large quantities.

Medication of Day-old chicks:  

Soon after arrival of chicks give safe drinking water (1 lit / 40 chicks) containing 10g of glucose or sugar / lit. electrolyte mixture – 1g / lit.
water along with an antibiotics  or antimicrobial at the recommended dose and a multivitamin tonic. 
It is sufficient to give glucose or sugar and electrolytes only once on the first day unless the chicks are under severe stress, provide safe drinking water to the broilers throughout.
Atleast for the first one or two weeks provide boiled and cooled drinking water or water containing sanitizer, as detailed under water sanitation. 
Mild antibiotics, or anti microbial  like tetracycline, furazolidonics have to be given in the drinking water continuously for the first five days to  prevent hatchery-borne infection, if any. 
Change over to newer antimicrobial drug, once in six months to prevent development of resistance strains of bacteria. 
The tonics are usually   given once daily for the first one week or longer.
But if own well balanced feed is prepared with known additives, there is necessarily for mixing these again in drinking water.